Black Friday Bash

It is not surprising to see parking lots filled to capacity (or excess) on Black Friday. The prospect of incredible savings draws big crowds.

It is not surprising to see parking lots filled to capacity (or excess) on Black Friday. The prospect of incredible savings draws big crowds.

I like to say that while some people observe Good Friday, I observe Black Friday. I therefore consider it to be a personal affront when I hear mainstream media warn “Be careful, those crazy shoppers will be coming out in full force in less than a week!” Unfortunately, Americans who take advantage of sales on Black Friday have earned a reputation as being insane, stopping at nothing to snatch an item off the shelf before someone else gets the chance. While these people are the only ones portrayed in the news, there is also a minority of people like myself: educated consumers who remain calm and composed, all while efficiently hitting every shop that offers unbelievable deals. Both friends and family have even asked me to do their Black Friday bidding because they themselves are too scared to go. It is out of the goodness of my heart that I share with you my secrets and tricks of the trade here; however, should you use them against me if we happen to be in the same store, you will face my wrath. (Just kidding. Not really.)

Red is depicted as a negative value, such as in this graph.

Red is depicted as a negative value, such as in this graph.

Black Friday, though not an official holiday, falls out every year without fail the day after Thanksgiving. Its name may have originated from two possible sources: 1. “Black” described the heavy traffic flow on this day in Philadelphia many years back 2. “Black” describes the profit that businesses earn on this day (‘In the red’ means negative, or making a loss.) Whatever the case may be, this day has proven to be critical to the success of businesses, many of which depend on the increased revenue they generate on that day to cover any losses they incurred throughout the calendar year.

I will not be worrying about how businesses benefit here. I like to view Black Friday as the opportunity for the educated consumer to make killer deals. You have to be careful to go to the right stores in order to get the best deals. For example, electronics can be found for dirt-cheap in places other than Best Buy, such as in Target, Walmart, or Amazon. For clothing, however, Target is not the best place to go. Instead, check out stores that focus on selling clothing in particular, such as Lord and Taylor and the Gap. While these stores might have a reputation for being pricy, they actually provide incredible sales on Black Friday. Garments that you like but could not buy because of the hefty price tag are suddenly affordable, sometimes even dirt-cheap. There is a specific method to catching these lucrative deals.

Coming with a prepared list of where you want to go (and , ideally what you want to get) is the only semblance of organization you will experience on day associated with extreme chaos.

Coming with a prepared list of where you want to go (and , ideally what you want to get) is the only semblance of organization you will experience on a day associated with extreme chaos.

It is easy to get overwhelmed on Black Friday. There are so many deals; where do you go even start?  For those of you who get easily distracted, a list of exactly where you will go will help you to stay on track, as well as help you maintain your sanity. Besides for a list, you should take a coupon with you, if possible. That way, you can increase your savings by even more than is advertised. The coupons are either more valuable than usual (25% on everything, not only on select merchandise) or have a set dollar amount off. For example, I got my hands on a $20 off $40 or more for Lord and Taylor. I am excited to use this voucher, and even more enthused at the additional savings I will accrue by my 20% off coupon at the same time. Savings galore! However, you must be cautious about when you use them. Many stores offer unbelievable discounts or validate their coupons during a small time frame. You therefore have to use your time wisely so as to scoop up all the good deals before they expire. Time is your enemy on Black Friday.

Black Friday can be characterized by sheer mayhem. When else will you find a grandma sprinting across the store amidst a huge crowd?

Black Friday is be characterized by sheer mayhem. Even a grandma can pose as your greatest threat in getting that heavily discounted item off of the shelf. And no one likes to fight Grandma.

Another enemy you will encounter on Black Friday are fellow shoppers. All of you have the same mission in mind: saving money. Some people might also be seeking out the same items as you. Be cautious of all shoppers, as you never know from a cursory glance what type of shopper s/he is. They can be either civil and considerate, or shamelessly hostile, taking no prisoners. There are a few tips that will allow you to come out unscathed. First, wear close-toed, comfortable shoes. You share the same goal as the nurses in hospitals who also wear such footwear: to be protected from heavy objects (in our case, trampling feet) and to make the hours spent on your feet seem more bearable. Secondly, the younger you look, the better. I have noticed that customers are nicer to me when I wear a messy bun and am sans makeup than when I look put together. (I think this might be because they feel somewhat guilty when shoving someone who looks 15 than doing so to a 25 year old. For Black Friday shoppers, it is an unfortunate reality that dignity is entirely irrelevant.

Lately people have chosen to do their shopping online, instead of facing the unpredictable customers who will stop at nothing for a  good deal. I repeat, Nothing.

Lately, people have chosen to do their shopping online, instead of facing the unpredictable customers who will stop at nothing for a good deal. I repeat, Nothing.

The hysteria of shoppers reflects the highly capitalistic nature of Black Friday that has evolved over time. With the widespread use of the Internet and its strong influence, businesses have expanded their deals technologically. Often, more sales are offered on company websites than in stores. This is likely the case in order to attract people  too scared to face the stores or the impossible parking. Online transactions also serve to thin the crows (by how much, I am unsure), making it easier for store employees to man cash registers. In addition to online deals on Black Friday proper, retailers have created what is now called “Cyber Monday”. For those individuals who missed out on Black Friday deals, they have a chance to catch some last minute online. The boon to Cyber Monday is that these deals are only available online-physical stores do not extend Black Friday deals through Monday.

You probably think that I would be over the moon if Black Friday would be expanded, to take place 24/7. While I love Black Friday, and the fact that deals are now available online both the day of and the following Monday, there is one aspect to its evolution that I abhor. Lately, stores such as Walmart have begun extending the sales for customers by opening the stores late Thursday night. I love a good deal, but I have no tolerance for such ungratefulness toward employees. These workers have to work ungodly hours on Black Friday because stores open as early as 5 am to accommodate as many customers as possible. Who are we to then dip into their vacation day to force them to work even more? I don’t care if they get paid “time and a half”-they should get paid triple. The message of Thanksgiving, that of appreciating everything you have and what others do for you, clearly goes over everyone’s heads. While I could potentially make some killer deals by going shopping on Thursday night, I refuse to do so on moral grounds. I am convinced that I find incredible steals regardless, due to Karma.

Some people have an explicable rush when buying something at a heavily reduced price. If you are one of those, don't worry: you are in good company.

Some people have an inexplicable rush when buying something at a heavily reduced price. If you are one of those, don’t worry: you are in good company.

I highly recommend you go out shopping on Black Friday, taking into account the advice I gave you, but please, do not go shopping on Thursday. Stay at home with your friends and family and appreciate what you have. This may sound bizarre in an economic/financial blog, because normally everything has to do with self-interest. When it comes to shopping on Thanksgiving itself, I am steadfast in my beliefs that it is wrong. However, feel free to ask me any questions you have about shopping on Black Friday, as well as the great deals you get (I genuinely get vicariously excited)!

Published in: on November 26, 2013 at 12:25 am Comments (0)
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Economic Impacts of the PhilippinesTyphoon

Look at just how badly the Phillipines, a once thriving, built up area, was ravaged by the typhoon. Perhaps seeing a before an after image will  inspire action. After all, a picture speaks a thousand words.

Look at just how badly the Philippines, a once thriving, built up area, was ravaged by the typhoon. Perhaps seeing a before an after image will inspire action. After all, a picture speaks a thousand words.

About two weeks ago, a Typhoon named Haiyan ripped through the Philippines. While all natural disasters are unfortunate, this catastrophe was particularly destructive; it was deemed one of the worst in history. The death toll keeps rising, currently at an estimated 10,000, and the area is completely ravaged. Last year, when Hurricane Sandy struck, I lived without heat, electricity, and phone reception for a week, and I received the utmost sympathies from friends abroad. Yet this type of suffering is nothing compared to the dire situation of those in the Philippines, where entire communities were ravaged. The effects of this typhoon will impact the state of the Philippines both in the short and long run. While health is clearly the top concern in such a situation, one such important effect is of that on the economy. Businesses and economic markets manifest themselves in all circumstances, and the ruined state of the Philippines is no exception.

blog 12.2

There are many immediate, obvious consequences of a natural disaster. For one, the amount of resources available is heavily diminished, there is less clean water, transportation is halted, and shelter is limited due to the fact that homes are destroyed. Labor is also put on hold not only because of the priority to keep people healthy, but also because there are casualties; fewer people means less manpower.  Thus trade, which benefits both parties involved, comes to a grinding halt.  A better off country does not consider morality, but rather its own best interests, when it donates money and sends volunteers. The sooner the afflicted country recovers, the sooner they can both proceed with trade.

Volunteers witness firsthand the desperation in disaster areas. Often, before help arrives, individuals are so desperate for resources that they loot stores. People who are normally law abiding citizens go to uncharacteristically extreme measures because they feel that their lives are in danger. This has clear financial implications for store owners. Looted inventory means lost profit, and people whose businesses were destroyed must start building from scratch.

The demand for resources such as food and water increases in areas ravaged by the typhoon, as evidenced by  the shift of the Demand curve from D1 to D2. However, the supply curve remains unchanged. As a result, the equilibirirum point, where the supply and demand curve intersect, moves, causing the equilibrium price to increase from P1 to P2.

The demand for resources such as food and water increases in areas ravaged by the typhoon, as evidenced by the shift of the Demand curve from Q1 to Q2. However, the supply curve remains unchanged. As a result, the equilibrium point, where the supply and demand curve intersect, moves, causing the equilibrium price to increase from P1 to P2.

Those who are fortunate enough to have businesses that remain unscathed are in an advantageous position. They have the power to exploit desperate customers by charging inflated prices for goods. The reason for this is economically based: there is a high demand and an unchanging supply. In this situation, the equilibrium price is high; if it were lower, people would clear the shelves, and owners would not profit. High prices acutely affect the poor, who might have a greater need than those who are willing to pay. Therefore, what is arises is an unfair allocation of resources, which an economy focused on equality attempts to avoid. Ultimately, survival of the fittest rules. As Maslow determined in his Hierarchy of Needs, the first need for a human being is a physiological one. People are not concerned with morality or ‘Love thy friend like thyself’ if they do not have enough food to survive another day.

Psychologically, people are affected both in the short and long run. Such devastation impacts citizens’ morale. They can easily suffer from depression, for they have just lost everything. It is an eye opening experience to have everything you cherish suddenly be torn away from you. Life as you know it has changed forever.  How should you go about starting over?

Cranes and construction will be ubiquitous soon, as rebuilding is an inevitable consequence of such a natural disaster

Cranes and construction will soon be ubiquitous in the Philippines, as rebuilding is an inevitable consequence of such a natural disaster.

People’s psyche after this type of freak occurrence impacts the long term economic effects. Individuals wallow in a state of depression, and remain lethargic. However, that would entail living in abject poverty, with no food, resources, or shelter, which is not conducive to the growth of a society. Or, they can be creative and foster their entrepreneurial side. It is an unavoidable reality that, in an area of ruins, rebuilding is necessary. With this type of development, there is a great deal of room for job growth. After Sandy, for example, contractors were in high demand. This rejuvenating spirit is contagious and rejuvenates other job sectors. People building new homes need new furniture, clothing, and light fixtures. Suddenly, a freak occurrence that appeared to stifle any form of progress serves as an impetus for economic growth.

Most people, unlike countries, do not have obvious ulterior motives when helping a country in need; their sympathetic instincts serve as a main motive. Of course, I said main. If you are strapped for cash, but suffering children pull at your heartstrings, here is a piece of advice for you: give anyway. Donating to charity is tax deductible in most cases. Thus, you can relieve your guilty conscious while also relieving some of the burden of your taxes that Uncle Sam seeks every April 15th.

Those currently in the Philippines desperately need your help. I am notoriously frugal, and even I donated half a paycheck. I know a worthy humanitarian cause when I see one. My conclusion from analyzing this situation as a student was that Philippine citizens will be in a difficult situation economically for a long while; however, as a human with emotions, I know that I can potentially ameliorate their suffering.

Published in: on November 18, 2013 at 5:09 pm Comments (0)
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Tweeting in a New Era: Twitter’s IPO

What was once a simple picture of a bird is now a globally recognized symbol for a billion dollar company.

What was once a simple picture of a bird is now a globally recognized symbol for a billion dollar company.

When Twitter announced a few months ago that it would go public, Wall Street and financial investors were abuzz with excitement. Globally, there was also a huge frenzy about this piece of news. What would it be worth? How many stocks would be sold? What would this mean, logistically, for the future of this company, which had hitherto flourished as a privately owned business? After much speculation, Twitter went public on November 7, 2013 with an IPO-initial public offering-of $26 a share.

While 75% of busiensses are sole proprietorships, corporations nonetheless comprise a whopping 88% of the revenue earned. Perhaps that is why so many companies strive to become corporations-they have delusions of grandeur and think that they will be able to achieve such immense wealth-which, realistically, rarely happens to most businesses.

While 75% of businesses are sole proprietorships, corporations nonetheless comprise a whopping 88% of the revenue earned. Perhaps that is why so many companies strive to become corporations-they think that they will be able to achieve such immense wealth, too. Hate to burst their bubble, but the number of such businesses can just about be counted on your fingers and toes.

To understand why Twitter finally decided to become a corporation, it is first necessary to understand the three types of businesses, and their practical differences. Sole proprietorships are owned by one person; partnerships are owned by two ore more people; corporations are legally distinct entities owned by people who have shares in the company. A main difference between the former two and the latter is in regard to liability. Proprietorships and Partnerships have unlimited liability, whereas corporations have limited liability. Consider a company that you at one point invested $10, but unfortunately now has a debt of $100. As a corporation, the maximum amount you can lose is limited to what you invested; you lose $10 and no more, even though the debt is higher. As a proprietorship or partnership however, there is no cap as to how much you must pay. Even if you invested $10, you are liable to pay off the full $100, no matter the means. Though it might seem cruel, creditors are well within their right to go after your personal assets in order to receive their payment.

It is not as if getting taxed once is bad enough, but corporations get taxed twice!  That is sure to make the concept of a corporation much less enticing to the average business owner.

It is not as if getting taxed once is bad enough, but corporations get taxed twice! That is sure to make the concept of a corporation much less enticing to the average business owner.

It seems logical, then, that every company should be a corporation. Not so fast! Corporations may not face the scary reality of unlimited liability, but they are faced with something that every individual loathes, but twofold: double taxation. Not only are they required to pay taxes on revenue, but they then must also pay taxes on income. Thus, the downside to unlimited liability is equal to that of double taxation, thereby preventing one business from having more advantages than the other. An additional detail to note is that the official owners of a corporation are the stockholders. As a result, a publicly held company would lose complete control that it would otherwise have as a proprietorship or partnership.

The blue in this map of New York City represents tweeting activity. The tweeting is being done by tourists, friends and family, and businesses.

The blue in this map of New York City represents tweeting activity. The tweeting is being done by tourists, friends and family, and businesses.

For quite some time, Twitter succeeded as a privately held company. Yet it determined that it would be able to do even better financially as a corporation. A large demand was evident by the vast amount of people who expressed interest in wanting a piece of the company, figuring that Twitter’s ubiquitous popularity would translate into a valuable investment. In benefitting both parties, a symbiotic relationship through the formation of a corporation would likely result.

What would be the basis for the value of something as amorphous as a website-based company? As Twitter learned early on: advertisements. Twitter facilitated businesses’ abilities of reaching out to new customers. It determined that companies would want to place ads, and it began charging them to do so as a simple way of making a lot of money. Indeed, common folk enjoy using Twitter in order to reach out to friends and family. However, businesses especially reap the benefits it offers by exploiting its ability to reach a large audience. Twitter recognizes how invaluable it is to such companies; it even provides a section devoted to business owners as to how to use the website most efficiently so as to reach out to the maximum number of followers. Thus, by serving the needs of businesses, Twitter ensures that it has users that are willing to pay.

Seeing this in the local Stop and Shop reminded me of penny stocks. Penny stocks are shares of small public companies, essentially worth nothing. Of course, if you stock up on thousands of them, the amount you must pay suddenly becomes substantial. On a side note, if you ever encounter such a ludicrous promotion in a store, feel free to laugh and walk away, as others are enticed by the 'reduced price'. There is a fine line between looking for a sale and being a sucker for a sale.

Seeing this in the local Shop Rite reminded me of penny stocks. Penny stocks are shares of small public companies, essentially worth nothing. Of course, if you stock up on thousands of them, the amount you must pay suddenly becomes substantial. On a side note, if you ever encounter such a ludicrous promotion in a store, feel free to laugh and walk away, as others are enticed by the ‘reduced price’. There is a fine line between looking for a sale and being a sucker for a sale.

In the impending days before Twitter went public (an expression meaning that a company becomes a corporation) there was much speculation about the price. People thought that the IPO would be $23-$25, others said $27. The marginal difference of a single dollar may seem petty, but when millions of shares are being sold, these dollars can accumulate. Many felt that for a stock so high in demand, these prices were too conservative. Choosing the right price to start off when selling stocks is critical. If it is too low, the company will not make a lot of money; if it is too high, the company will scare investors away. Determining the ideal price is a complicated science in it of itself, and it requires the Goldilocks principle (not too hot, not too cold, but Just right).

The matter of choosing the right price for a web based company evoked bad memories of the fiasco involving Facebook’s IPO. Facebook overvalued the price of its stock, and for nearly nine consecutive days following its going public, Facebook’s stock price plummeted. An additional problem with its IPO was that there were many technological glitches, causing investors to be unsure if their stock purchases went through (a major cause for concern).

The first day of trading for Facebook was not promising.

The first day of trading for Facebook was not promising. Notice how much lower the price was at the end of the day, than during the beginning.

Fortunately, Twitter’s IPO ran smoothly. Its initial price of $26 a share fared well with investors.  In fact, people were so excited to buy that at the end of the day, prices soared 73% to $44.90 a share. In total, Twitter raised a staggering $2.1 billion in its IPO, making it the 7th largest ever.

The financial implications of Twitter as a corporation are significant. Other privately owned technology companies might note the success of Twitter, Facebook, and even Google, and consequently choose to become corporations. Not only is inundating the market with so many similar businesses a bad idea, but it also might not be in a particular company’s best interest to change its structure. Corporations might hinder its ability to grow, potentially leading to bankruptcy. People who vividly recall the dot com bubble in the early 2000’s, in which people overvalued website based companies, see history repeating itself. While the long-term effects of Twitter’s IPO are unclear, it is obvious that in the short run, similar companies will benefit.

Published in: on November 12, 2013 at 5:37 am Comments (1)
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SAC Scandal

Just to match a face with a name, this is Steven A Cohen, the subject of much of SEC's scrutiny as of late. Read on to find out exactly what he allegedly did.

Just to match a face with a name, this is Steven A Cohen, the subject of much of the SEC’s scrutiny as of late. Read on to find out exactly what he allegedly did.

An important piece of news in the financial world has involved SAC Capital: SAC is being pursued by the SEC on insider trading for $1.2 billion, and the head of SAC, Steven A Cohen, is facing a civil lawsuit for failing to supervise his employees, which could ultimately lead to him being legally forbidden from working in finance ever again, not to mention facing potentially hefty fines and jail time.

Sound complicated? It is. The news has been covering the story for quite some time, so it is rather difficult to understand a random article about the latest development if you have not been following the story from the beginning. My goal is to enlighten you about this important current event so that you will be able to have an opinion on the matter should someone ask you about it, or if you just want to be well-informed. (In my attempts to make this piece informative, accurate, and interesting, I conducted some research regarding the information I will be discussing. While I will not write a works cited page, I do not want to plagiarize. Therefore, I note here that the origin of many important details is Wikipedia.com. Thank you very much, and please continue to provide your services to your large following of students who procrastinate.)

A hedgefund is comprised of many different types of companies, from its finances  to the types of goods and services offered.

A hedge fund is comprised of many different types of companies, from its finances to the types of goods and services offered.

Steven A Cohen founded SAC Capital, a hedge fund, in 1992. (If you cannot tell, the etymology of the company name is his initials, a humble gesture on his part, I’m sure.) A hedge fund is a “pooled investment vehicle.” What does this mean? Two words: making money. People who want to invest buy shares in a company in order to make more money. Putting all your cash in one place, however, is risky. What if the company declares bankruptcy? Then you lose everything! The key to investing wisely is by diversifying. Just like the Queens College students are diverse, so too your investments should show variety. A hedge fund enables you to invest your money in a plethora of companies (that are either different types or have different ways of raising capital), so that the risk of losing money is slim.

Let's just say Steven A Cohen is a tad higher than most of us on the Forbes Top 400 List. Slash he is actually on the list, which speaks volumes about the amount he holds in his bank. account.

Let’s just say Steven A Cohen is a tad higher than most of us on the Forbes Top 400 list. Slash he is actually on the list, which speaks volumes about the amount he holds in his bank account.

So what’s wrong with starting a company that wants to make more money? This is capitalist America, after all! SAC is a relatively young company at 21 years old. In this short amount of time, SAC has grown substantially, to the point where it is now worth $9.3 billion. That is an astronomical value; it is not surprising, then, that Cohen is #43 on the Forbes 400 list of the wealthiest people in America. On the surface, this does not seem to be a problem. Perhaps Cohen has a knack for detecting companies that are valuable, and consequently invested in those. Yet others are more cynical. For example, the SEC, essentially a police force exclusively dedicated to keeping the finance aspect of the business world in check, thinks that something is fishy as to how SAC conducted their investments. Being able to amass such an incredible amount of wealth in such a short time frame is perhaps too good to be true. (Note: do not mix up the SEC and SAC- the former is the prosecutor, and the latter is being prosecuted.)

In 2004, Martha Stewart was famously charged with obstruction of justice and was sentenced to jail. While not explicitly convicted of insider trading, she essentially did so. (Her decision to suddenly sell stocks whose value subsequently plummeted, in addition to other evidence, indicated that she had acted on information that the laymen did not know.

In 2004, Martha Stewart was famously charged with obstruction of justice and was sentenced to jail. While not explicitly convicted of insider trading, she essentially did so. (Her decision to suddenly sell stocks whose value subsequently plummeted, in addition to other evidence, indicated that she had acted on information that the laymen did not know). I personally find it rather shameless that she used this opportunity in the limelight to highlight her crocheting skills; the crocheted poncho immediately became a fashion fad.

It is important to note that the SEC does not go after lucrative companies (or it is not supposed to) unless they do something illegal. In the case with SAC, the SEC has found evidence of insider trading. (It is not alleged because 6 employees have already pleaded guilty to doing so.) Insider trading means having information that others are not privy to, and consequently acting upon this knowledge. That way, you can invest in something that is currently low in price and that you will reap the monetary benefits when it increases in value; similarly, if you know stocks will decrease in price, you will sell them while they are still valued highly. In short, insider trading is illegal because it is unfair. Despite the dog eat dog nature of business, America tries its best to regulate this unfair type of business behavior.

The insider trading in this case involves a doctor who told SAC investors about a trial for a drug that did not have terrific results. Knowing this information, one would automatically want to sell their shares in the company because it is not doing so well. However, only SAC knew of the unsuccessful results of the trial, and consequently were the only ones to sell their shares in the company, while it was still valued highly. By selling at the perfect time, they avoided losses of $276 million.

The ultimate goal is to catch the top person who orchestrated the insider trading. In building its case, the SEC has slowly been interrogating, and often indicting, different employees of higher and higher ranks, figuring that someone will finally spill the beans and disclose information that proves that Cohen is guilty. The workers,however, have all remained mum on the subject. Cohen has remained adamant in his claim that his employees were the ones who, out of their own volition, acted unethically. By agreeing to pay the SEC about $600 million, he did not admit to being guilty; rather, he wanted to put an end to the SEC’s continuously pursuing the company. After all, knowing that the SEC is determined to bring about your downfall is both extremely burdensome and bad for business.

The SEC theorizes that there is a web of unethical insider trading, all stemming back to Steven A Cohen. It has been desperately trying to find a solid connection back to him in order to piece the puzzle together.

The SEC theorizes that there is a web of unethical insider trading, all stemming back to Steven A Cohen. It has been desperately trying to find a solid connection back to him in order to piece the puzzle together.

The reason the SEC is so adamant to achieve this win against the SAC is because of what happened in the Financial Crash of 2007. In going after large businesses, it is trying to prevent such a widespread economic travesty from happening again. Should SAC concede defeat, SEC would achieve its largest win, in terms of how much the company would be fined: in total, over $1.8 billion. Sometimes, however, it seems that the SEC simply has a vendetta against the success of large businesses. Granted, some arrogant businesses still believe in the mantra that flew around during 2007 of being “too big too fail”; nonetheless, they are well within their rights to try to expand their success. Whatever ultimately happens, this is an important current event to be aware of because it is sure to have many legal and financial consequences as to how businesses will conduct themselves in the future.

Update: Literally as I was putting the finishing touches on this post, I checked NYTimes.com and saw breaking news: “SAC to Plead Guilty and Pay $1.2 Billion for Insider Trading.” While at first I was upset that this happened before I posted, I saw a silver lining for my readers. After reading this piece, you will have a thorough background of the story, and will be able to follow the ensuing legal drama that will take place.

Published in: on November 5, 2013 at 4:15 am Comments (0)
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